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North Africa is home to the country of Algeria, formerly known as the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria. Algeria has a rich and varied past, having been influenced by many different cultures and civilizations over the course of its existence. In this essay, we will offer a concise review of Algerian history, beginning with its ancient era and ending with modern day.

Ancient History and the Past
Around 10,000 B.C. is when people first started settling in what is now Algeria. Several different peoples, including the Capsians and the Berbers, made the area their home throughout the Neolithic period. The Berbers were the dominant people in Algeria until the advent of the Phoenicians in the 9th century BC. They are said to have settled there approximately 3000 B.C.

The Phoenicians set up several commercial outposts along the coast of Algeria, which quickly grew into major ports. The city of Carthage, established by Phoenician colonists in the ninth century BC, rose to prominence as the center of the Carthaginian Empire.

Including modern-day Algeria, the province of Africa was founded by the Roman Republic after its conquest of Carthage in 146 BC. The Romans founded many settlements in the area, notably Hippo Regius, which developed into a major intellectual and cultural hub after the arrival of Christianity. Roman rule in Algeria continued until the Vandals arrived in the area in the fifth century AD.

Conquest by Islam and Ottoman rule
Arab Muslim troops launched a campaign of conquests in North Africa in the seventh century AD. The first Muslim kingdom in the area was founded in 698 AD when the Arab general Hassan ibn al-Nu’man led an army across the Mediterranean and seized the city of Carthage.

Algeria became a cultural and intellectual hub as Islam expanded throughout the country over the next few centuries. The Ottoman Empire took control of Algeria in the 16th century and ruled the country until the 19th.

Colonialism and American Independence in France
France began its colonization of North Africa in the 19th century, and in 1830, they conquered Algeria. The French established a rigorous colonial system that was distinguished by repression and discrimination, but they also made a number of social and economic improvements.

Algerians, beginning in the early 20th century, formed a variety of nationalist movements in opposition to French colonial rule. Between 1954 and 1962, Algeria fought a guerrilla war against French forces led by the National Liberation Front (FLN).

Before the Revolution
After achieving independence, Algeria was led by President Ahmed Ben Bella during a socialist era. The country’s political and economic liberalization process got off in the late 1980s, but it was disrupted by a civil war that lasted from 1991 to 2002.

Although a multi-party democracy, Algeria is characterized by a powerful president and restricted press freedom. Despite its abundance of oil and gas, the country’s high unemployment and poverty rates make it a poor economic performer.

Algeria’s rich and varied past is the result of many different cultural and civilisational influences. From ancient times to the present, Algeria has played a pivotal role in the region’s geopolitics as a hub for commerce, education, and resistance.

The roots of racism in Algeria, a country in North Africa, go deep into the country’s historical past. Berbers, Arabs, and people from sub-Saharan Africa make up the biggest ethnic groupings in this varied country. In Algeria, racism is driven not just by differences in skin color or race, but also by language, religion, and socioeconomic status.

Racism in Algeria: A Brief Origins History

During the Phoenician and Roman periods, racism first emerged in Algeria. The local populace, mostly Berbers, was enslaved and exploited by these cultures. When the Arabs conquered North Africa in the 7th century, they solidified prejudice against the indigenous Berber people.

During the Ottoman period (16th to 19th century), the Turks who controlled Algeria enforced a racial hierarchy that put Arabs at the top, followed by Berbers, and then sub-Saharan Africans. Because of their arrogance, the Turks forced their language and religion on the locals.

Racism and colonialism in French-occupied Algeria

The beginning of French colonial rule in Algeria in 1830 and its continuation for more than a century were watershed moments in the country’s racist past. The French conquerors thought of themselves as better than the native Algerians, therefore they imposed French language, culture, and religion on them. The French colonial government established laws that were biased in favor of European colonists and against the indigenous people.

The French actively worked to maintain racial divisions among the Algerian people. They considered the Arabs and Berbers to be beneath them, therefore they subjected them to servitude, forced migration, and land confiscation. The French were not alone in their bias and dehumanization of sub-Saharan Africans.

Algerians Fight Back Against Racism

The Algerian resistance movement emerged during the country’s French colonial era. Nationalists in Algeria battled for their country’s freedom and the return of their political and cultural rights. In 1954, the National Liberation Front (FLN) was formed, and under its leadership, Algeria won its independence in 1962.

The Algerian government, upon its independence, instituted programs to foster equality and counteract prejudice. The government ended discriminatory French colonial practices such relocating the Berbers without their will and seizing their land. Sub-Saharan Africans had their rights protected and were granted citizenship by the government.

Racism and prejudice remain issues in Algeria despite these efforts. Arabs and Berbers have had a contentious relationship in Morocco for a long time, with the latter group alleging discrimination and marginalization. Discrimination, police harassment, and arbitrary arrests and incarceration are all problems for people in Sub-Saharan Africa as well.


In sum, racism in Algeria is an intricate problem with deep historical origins. The country’s population is quite varied, yet its many different groups have frequently clashed. Although Algeria has made strides in eliminating prejudice since the end of the French colonial period, more work has to be done to ensure that all Algerians enjoy the benefits of social justice and equality.

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