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New Mexico : Crescit Eundo



New Mexico is a state in the southwestern United States. New Mexico is the fifth-largest state by area, the 36th-most populous state, and the 10th-least densely populated of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Santa Fe.

New Mexico’s estimated 2019 population of 2,096,429 makes it the 32nd-most populous state in the United States. New Mexico’s southern border is largely defined by the Rio Grande, which flows through the state from north to south. New Mexico also shares borders with the U.S. states of Arizona to the west, Colorado to the north, Oklahoma to the northeast, and Texas to the east. New Mexico is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona; its other neighbors include the adjacent countries of Mexico to the south and southwest, and Nicaragua to the southeast.

New Mexico is bordered by Colorado to the north, Oklahoma to the northeast, Texas to the east-southeast, New Mexico shares an eastern border with Texas. New Mexico also shares a short border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua to the south and Sonora to the southwest. New Mexico has a land area of 121,589 sq mi (314,915 km2) and is the fifth-largest state in the United States by area. It is slightly larger than the United Kingdom. New Mexico’s total area is greater than that of 43 other U.S. states. With a population density of 17.7 inhabitants per square mile (6.8/km2), New Mexico is the sixth-lowest densely populated state in the United States and has the second-highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, second only to California

New Mexico’s topography is divided into eastern and western regions. The eastern part of New Mexico lies in the Great Plains, while the western part consists of the Southern Rocky Mountains. The two regions are separated by the Rio Grande, which flows through the center of the state from north to south. New Mexico also has three distinct geographical regions: the Rio Grande Valley in the south, the New Mexico Highlands in the north, and the New Mexico Plateau in the west.

New Mexico has a semi-arid climate, with hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters. The state is home to a diverse array of cultures and traditions. New Mexico’s workforce is largely composed of Hispanics and Native Americans. New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanic residents of any U.S. state. New Mexico also has the highest percentage of Native Americans of any U.S. state, and the second-highest percentage of African Americans.

New Mexico has a long history of racism and discrimination against minority groups, particularly Hispanics and Native Americans. In recent years, the state has been working to address these issues and improve race relations. New Mexico’s Hispanic community is the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the state. New Mexico’s Native American community is also sizable and growing. Both groups have faced discrimination and racism throughout New Mexico’s history.

New Mexico has made progress in addressing racism and discrimination, but there is still more work to be done. New Mexico’s Hispanic and Native American communities continue to face challenges in education, employment, and income. New Mexico must continue to work to address these issues and improve race relations in the state.

New Mexico has a complex history when it comes to racism, as it has been home to various indigenous populations, as well as Spanish, Mexican, and American settlers. The legacy of racism and discrimination in New Mexico is a painful one, as it has impacted the lives of countless individuals and communities for generations.


Prior to European colonization, New Mexico was home to numerous Native American tribes, including the Apache, Comanche, Navajo, and Pueblo people. With the arrival of Spanish colonizers in the 16th century, the indigenous populations were subjected to violence and forced labor. The Spanish colonizers viewed the indigenous people as inferior and sought to convert them to Catholicism and assimilate them into Spanish culture. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, in which the indigenous population successfully drove out the Spanish colonizers, was a significant moment in New Mexico’s history, but the victory was short-lived. Spanish rule was re-established in the region in 1692, and the oppression of the indigenous people continued.

In the early 19th century, Mexico gained independence from Spain and took control of New Mexico. However, discrimination against indigenous people continued under Mexican rule, and the arrival of American settlers in the mid-1800s only exacerbated the problem. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican-American War in 1848, transferred control of New Mexico to the United States, and the territory became a part of the Union in 1912.

Under American rule, discrimination against Native Americans and other minority groups persisted. The federal government’s policy of forced assimilation, which included the forced removal of Native American children from their families and placement in boarding schools, had a devastating impact on indigenous communities. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which sought to promote self-governance among Native American tribes, was a step in the right direction, but discrimination and marginalization continued.

African Americans who migrated to New Mexico in the early 1900s also faced discrimination, including segregation and exclusion from certain jobs and neighborhoods. The state’s history of segregation is often overlooked, but it is a significant part of New Mexico’s past. Mexican Americans, who have a long history in the state, also faced discrimination and segregation, particularly in the rural areas of southern New Mexico.

The history of racism in New Mexico is a painful one, and its effects are still felt today. The legacy of discrimination and marginalization has had a significant impact on the state’s minority populations, including Native Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. However, there have also been moments of resistance and resilience, as these communities have fought for their rights and their place in New Mexico’s history.

Racism still exists in New Mexico and has significant negative effects on Black people in particular.

One of the primary ways in which racism affects Black people in New Mexico is through systemic discrimination. Black people are often subject to discriminatory hiring practices, housing discrimination, and unequal access to education and healthcare. This can lead to limited opportunities for advancement and a higher likelihood of poverty and unemployment. The effects of systemic discrimination can be seen in the significant racial disparities in poverty rates and educational attainment in New Mexico.

In addition to systemic discrimination, Black people in New Mexico also face direct racism in the form of racial slurs, harassment, and violence. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, there are active hate groups in New Mexico, which contribute to a culture of intolerance and discrimination. The effects of direct racism can be traumatic and long-lasting, leading to anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Another way in which racism affects Black people in New Mexico is through cultural erasure. Black people have a long and rich history in New Mexico, dating back to the time of Spanish colonialism. However, this history is often overlooked or ignored, and Black people are frequently excluded from conversations about New Mexico’s cultural heritage. This erasure can lead to a sense of alienation and a loss of identity and connection to the community.

The effects of racism on Black people in New Mexico are significant and multifaceted. Racism can lead to limited opportunities, trauma, and cultural erasure, all of which can have long-lasting negative effects on individuals and communities. It is crucial that individuals, organizations, and government agencies work to address and eliminate racism in all its forms in order to create a more just and equitable society for all people.


Sundown town, in U.S. history, a town that excluded nonwhite people—most frequently African Americans—from remaining in town after sunset.

Here is a current list of sundown towns in New Mexico. This list has been created by Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, MS. This list is a work in progress. Some cities have been confirmed as sundown towns and some are listed for other or similar reasons.





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